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The Tripartite Nature of the Nervous System: Evaluating the Existence of Peripheral Autonomous Networks

This research article explores the concept that the human nervous system is not solely confined to the traditional understanding of a central nervous system (CNS). Instead, we propose the existence of two additional independent nervous systems within the human body: the mitochondrial nervous system and the fascia-organ network. Both these systems possess unique characteristics, capable of functioning autonomously and contributing to the overall functioning and coordination of the human body. By examining current knowledge and existing literature on these peripheral neural networks, this article aims to shed light on their potential roles and implications for human health.


The conventional concept of the nervous system primarily centers on the central nervous system, which comprises the brain and spinal cord. However, recent discoveries highlight the presence of additional neural networks within the human body. This article presents a comprehensive review of the scientific evidence supporting the existence of the mitochondrial nervous system and the fascia-organ network, addressing their origins, anatomical arrangements, and potential functions. From an evolutionary perspective, we evolved from single cell to multi cell organisms, that created more complex systems, to eventually evolve developing a spine and brain. This latest system is chronologically the newest system to evolve. It is also the least understood. Science does not offer us any clarity on why we have a brain this size if you are unable to use it at full capacity, evolution suggests we evolved with a brain this size primarily because we were using more and more of our brain capacity. A secondary theory here can revolve around brain capacity usage due to chronic dysregulation of the central nervous system and potentially these other nervous systems factoring in the potentiality of of oxytocin receptor site activation.

The Mitochondrial Nervous System:

Mitochondria, often referred to as the powerhouses of the cell, are semi-autonomous organelles carrying their own DNA (mtDNA). Recent research suggests that mitochondria also possess a rudimentary autonomous nervous system, capable of modulating cellular functions and influencing overall body homeostasis. This section elucidates the anatomical and physiological properties of the mitochondrial nervous system, examines its communication pathways, and explores its potential role in cellular signaling, disease pathogenesis, and response to stressors.

The Fascia-Organ Network:

The fascia, a connective tissue enveloping muscles, organs, and other bodily structures, has long been acknowledged for its role in maintaining structural integrity. However, emerging scientific evidence supports the existence of a network of sensory nerves within the fascia, forming an independent psychomotor and proprioceptive system. This section delves into the intricate anatomy and function of the fascia-organ network, highlighting its capacity to store and transmit information independently of the CNS. We discuss the potential implications of this network on pain perception, motor control, and disease progression.

Interplay and Communication:

This section explores the interplay and communication dynamics between the three proposed nervous systems. We investigate the potential two-way signaling pathways between the CNS and peripheral autonomous networks, examining the role of neurogenesis, neuroplasticity, and hormonal signaling in maintaining the integrity of this tripartite nervous system.

Clinical Implications:

Understanding the existence and functioning of these peripheral nervous systems has profound implications for clinical practice. This section explores potential diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that may arise from considering the tripartite nature of the nervous system. We emphasize the importance of further investigation to unravel the clinical relevance of these networks and their contribution to neurological disorders, pain management, and overall human health.


The presented evidence supports the notion that the human body possesses at a very minimum three nervous systems, extending beyond the boundaries of the CNS. The existence of the mitochondrial nervous system and the fascia-organ network provides a more comprehensive understanding of human physiology and offers novel routes for exploration in the realm of diagnostics and therapeutics. Further research is necessary to elucidate the precise mechanisms, functions, and clinical implications of these peripheral autonomous networks.

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